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超声波测距

ultrasonic switch

幸运飞艇APP时间:2013-11-02 10:29:26  来源:

click here to enlarge schematic 

Transmitter Parts:

IC1

NE555 timer IC

VR1

10k variable resistor

R1

4。7k resistor

R2

18k potentiometer

R3

1k resistor

R4, R5

220 ohm resistor

C1

680 picofarad capacitor

C2

0。01uf capacitor

D1, D2

1N4148 Diode

T1

SL100 NPN transistor

T2

SK100 PNP transistor

S1

SPST momentary contact switch

XMTR

ultrasonic transmitter 40-50khz


Receiver Parts:

RCVR

Ultrasonic Receiver 40-50khz

RL1

6volt 200ohm resistor

IC2

CA3140

VR2

250k Variable Resistor

R6

390k Resistor

R7

470k Resistor

R8, R12

15k Resistor

R9

12k

R10, R13

10k

R11

4.7k

R14

100k Resistor

R15

33 ohm Resistor

C3

0.22uf ceramic capacitor

C4

0.1uf ceramic capacitor

C5

560n ceramic capacitor

T3,T4

BC548 NPN Transistor

T5

BC558 PNP Transistor

T6

SL100 NPN Transistor

D3,D4,D5

1N4148 Diode


all resistors are 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt
all capacitors are 10 percent tolerance,
rated 35 volts or higher

The circuit described generates (transmits) ultrasonic sound of frequency between 40 and 50 kHz. As with any other remote control system this cirucit comprises of a mini transmitter and a receiver circuit. Transmitter generates ultrasonic sound and the receiver senses ultrasonic sound from the transmitter and switches on a relay.

The ultrasonic transmitter uses a 555 based astable multivibrator. It oscillates at a frequency of 40-50 kHz. An ultrasonic transmitter transducer is used here to transmit ultrasonic sound very effectively. The transmitter is powered from a 9-volt PP3 single cell. The ultrasonic receiver circuit uses an ultrasonic receiver transducer to sense ultrasonic signals. It also uses a two-stage amplifier, a rectifier stage, and an operational amplifier in inverting mode. Output of op-amp is connected to a relay through a complimentary relay driver stage. A 9-volt battery eliminator can be used for receiver circuit, if required. When switch S1 of transmitter is pressed, it generates ultrasonic sound. The sound is received by ultrasonic receiver transducer. It converts it to electrical variations of the same frequency. These signals are amplified by transistors T3 and T4. The amplified signals are then rectified and filtered. The filtered DC voltage is given to inverting pin of op-amp IC2. The non- inverting pin of IC2 is connected to a variable DC voltage via preset VR2 which determines the threshold value of ultrasonic signal received by receiver for operation of relay RL1. The inverted output of IC2 is used to bias transistor T5. When transistor T5 conducts, it supplies base bias to transistor T6. When transistor T6 conducts, it actuates the relay. The relay can be used to control any electrical or electronic equipment.
Important hints:
1. Frequency of ultrasonic sound generated can be varied from 40 to 50 kHz range by adjusting VR1. Adjust it for maximum performance.
2. Ultrasonic sounds are highly directional. So when you are operating the switch the ultrasonic transmitter transducer of transmitter should be placed towards ultrasonic receiver transducer of receiver circuit for proper functioning.
3. Use a 9-volt PP3 battery for transmitter. The receiver can be powered from a battery eliminator and is always kept in switched on position.
4. For latch facility use a DPDT relay if you want to switch on and switch off the load. A flip-flop can be inserted between IC2 and relay. If you want only an ?ON-time delay? use a 555 only at output of IC2. The relay will be energised for the required period determined by the timing components of 555 monostable multivibrator.
5. Ultrasonic waves are emitted by many natural sources. Therefore, sometimes, the circuit might get falsely triggered, espically when a flip-flop is used with the circuit, and there is no remedy for that.



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